GaBi Solutions





The ReCiPe LCA methodology was created by RIVM, CML , PRé Consultants, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen and CE Delft. The group of authors include the developers of the CML 2001 and Ecoindicator 99 methodologies.

ReCiPe can be seen as a fusion of the two methodologies, taking the midpoint indicators from CML and the endpoint indicators from Ecoindicator.


Cultural Perspective


All mid- and endpoint indicators are available in three versions taking into account three different cultural perspectives:


  • Individualist (I) is based on the short-term interest, impact types that are undisputed, technological optimism as regards to human adaptation. Uses the shortest time frame e.g. a 20 year timeframe for global warming, GWP20
  • Hierarchist (H) is based on the most common policy principles with regards to time-frame and other issues. Uses the medium time frame e.g. a 100 year timeframe for global warming, GWP100
  • Egalitarian (E) is the most precautionary perspective, taking into account the longest time-frame, impact types that are not yet fully established but for which some indication is available, etc. Uses the longest time frame e.g. a 1000 year timeframe for global warming, (GWP1000) and infinite time for ozone depletion (ODPInf)



ReCiPe determine indicators at two levels; midpoint and endpoint indicators. The idea is that the user can choose the level of the results:

  1. Eighteen midpoint indicators; low uncertainty but difficult to interpret. The midpoint indicators are similar to what is used in the CML methodology: Climate change, acidification, eutrophication etc.
  2. Three endpoint indicators; easy to understand but more uncertain. The endpoint indicators are similar to what is used in the Ecoindicator 99 methodology: Damage to Human health, ecosystems, and resource availability

thinkstep and IABP-GaBi cannot be held responsible for any of this information and data.


Normalisation is developed both for the midpoint and endpoint indicators




Weighting is not developed for the mid-point indicators by the ReCiPe authors.
The midpoint values can be weighted using the thinkstep LCIA Survey 2012. Using this only makes sense combined with a normalisation hereby bringing the impacts to the same unit of person-equivalents.

The endpoint indicators can be weighted using the ReCiPe weighting factors developed by the authors or using the weighting factors developed in the thinkstep LCIA Survey 2012



[1] Characterisation and normalisation

All factors can be downloaded on the ReCiPe website:

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